Equipped to Serve: Erasmus

As I mentioned in an earlier post, it is my intention to summarise some teaching I have been blessed by at Trinity Church Bradford. The topic is church history, and more specifically the reformation (for now at least). As our starting point, we took some excerpts from On the Freedom of the Will by Desiderius Erasmus (written in 1524). This was a work written in response to Martin Luther’s teaching on free will. It was a David and Goliath in intellectual terms, with Erasmus regarded as one of the most learned men in Europe at the time.

'Portrait of Erasmus of Rotterdam' by Hans Holbein the Younger

‘Portrait of Erasmus of Rotterdam’ by Hans Holbein the Younger

I’d never read any of Erasmus’ writing before, but I was immediately struck by how much we can learn from the way he argues. He is very clear and methodical in his argument, and grounds much of what he says in the Bible. He sets out Bible passages which seem to agree with him, Bible passages which seem to disagree, and responds to the arguments employed by Luther. In all of this he attempts to interpret the Bible in a way which is consistent with those Christians who have gone before him. I would hope that we can all agree that, although Erasmus got much wrong, his approach is one we would do well to imitate today.

It is not only his style of argument which is notable. The Freedom of the Will is also notable for Luther’s own commendation of it! He wrote

“I praise and commend you highly for this also, that unlike all the rest you alone have attacked the real issue, the essence of the matter in dispute, and have not wearied me with irrelevancies about the papacy, purgatory, indulgences, and such like trifles (for trifles they are rather than basic issues), with which almost everyone hitherto has gone hunting for me without success. You and you alone have seen the question on which everything hinges, and have aimed at the vital spot; for which I sincerely thank you, since I am only too glad to give as much attention to this subject as time and leisure permit.”

Another commendation we can apply to Erasmus is that his motives in writing are extremely good. He does not go searching for a fight, as if an argument is happy sport, but aims to avoid arguments which generate more heat than light. As he says,

“who will learn anything fruitful from this sort of discussion – beyond the fact that each leaves the encounter bespattered with the other’s filth?”

He is eventually persuaded to enter the fray, largely from a concern that God’s character may be misrepresented by what he sees as false teaching. While Erasmus is wrong in much of what he says, here again we can learn from him. When we enter any dispute, may we always be motivated by a desire to safeguard the truth of who God is, not stir up trouble.

I won’t try to summarise all the arguments Erasmus makes, but the general gist seems to be that although human free will was damaged in the fall of Genesis 3, it was not extinguished and man is still able to choose to keep God’s law. He argues this from the many passages of the Bible which give commands, and he writes

“What end do all the myriad commandments serve if it is not possible for a man in any way to keep what is commanded?”

He can see no possible answer to this question, and decides that if someone ought to do something, they must necessarily have the ability to do it.

A year later, in 1525, Luther wrote a response. The content can be largely guessed from the title he gave it, which makes clear that he was unpersuaded by all that Erasmus wrote: “On the Bondage of the Will”. That will be the subject of my next in this series, which will probably be in a couple of weeks.

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Quick Quote 5 – a three-tier distinction

When talking about homosexuality, I think it is helpful to make a three-tier distinction between attractions, orientation, and identity. … The first tier is same-sex attraction. Using this term is the most descriptive way people can talk about their feelings. This is the part of the equation they can’t control. … The next tier is homosexual orientation. When people talk about having a homosexual orientation, they are essentially saying that they experience a same-sex attraction that is strong enough, durable enough, and persistent enough for them to feel that they are oriented toward the same sex. …  The person is simply describing the amount and persistence of their own attraction, which is based on what they perceive attraction to be. … The third level, gay identity, is the most prescriptive. It is a sociocultural label that people use to describe themselves, and it is a label that is imbued with meaning in our culture.

Mark Yarhouse, Homosexuality and the Christian

Enjoying the songs of middle-earth

When I read The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings as a child, I didn’t have much time for the songs. The short ones I endured, the long ones I skipped. Now I’m discovering a hitherto unknown appreciation for this poetry.

Roads go ever ever on,
Under cloud and under star,
Yet feet that wandering have gone
Turn at last to home afar.
Eyes that fire and sword have seen
And horror in the halls of stone
Look at last on meadows green
And trees and hills they long have known.

J. R. R. Tolkein, The Hobbit

As we’ve already seen this week, the Christian hope is described beautifully by Tolkein. This time the focus is on rest. The Christian journeys through this world in a constant state of war with spiritual forces. But our eyes, which currently see the conflict of fire and sword, will one day enjoy the sight of meadows, trees and hills that we have previously known only by faith.

Quick Quote 4 – even dragons have their ending

There far away was the Lonely Mountain on the edge of eyesight. On its highest peak snow yet unmelted was gleaming pale. “So comes snow after fire, and even dragons have their ending!” said Bilbo, and he turned his back on his adventure.

J. R. R. Tolkein, The Hobbit

This is the Christian hope in the midst of pain and suffering; fire is quenched and even dragons have their ending.

The great dragon was hurled down—that ancient serpent called the devil, or Satan, who leads the whole world astray.

Revelation 12:9

Quick Quote 3 – there are no words left to express his staggerment

To say that Bilbo’s breath was taken away is no description at all. There are no words left to express his staggerment, since Men changed the language that they learned of elves in the days when all the world was wonderful. Bilbo had heard tell and sing of dragon-hoards before, but the splendour, the lust, the glory of such treasure had never yet come home to him. His heart was filled and pierced with enchantment and with the desire of dwarves; and he gazed motionless, almost forgetting the frightful guardian, at the gold beyond price and count.

J. R. R. Tolkein, The Hobbit

When I get to heaven and see Jesus Christ face to face, even Tolkein’s description of Bilbo seeing the treasure hoard of the great dragon Smaug will be nothing in comparison to the wonder there will be. How thankful I am that there is no “frightful guardian” for the Christian to face, but a loving Father!

Thorin’s resurrection hope

For those who don’t know how The Hobbit ends, and don’t want the end of the last film to be spoiled, this would be a good post to skip. I’ll be blogging a few thoughts from The Hobbit for the whole of this week, as I’ve just finished reading it, so you might want to check back next Monday. For the rest of you, read on…

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Equipped to Serve: An introduction to church history

My church, Trinity Church Bradford, runs a course called Equipped to Serve. It runs over four years, and covers Christian doctrine, a Bible overview, church history and practical skills. This is the third year, and church history is the theme for the whole year. In the coming months I’ll be posting my thoughts on some of the things we’ve learnt.

In the first term we looked at the early church fathers, who wrestled with the question of God’s impassibility (don’t worry if you don’t know what that means, neither did I!) This term we’re considering the reformation, and next term will be the age of reason (I don’t really know what period that is, but we’re covering Descartes to Kant if that means anything to you!) It’s not a comprehensive look at church history, of course, but it’s a good grounding for further study in the future. The approach we are taking is to look at some of the key writings of each period, rather than focusing on the events themselves. We have been using these writings to gain an insight into the concerns, and particular the theology, of those who were at the centre of the events.

My aim is to write a series of posts to help myself think through some of what I’ve been learning, and draw out some highlights that might be beneficial to others too. I’m planning to start these posts from the material we’ve looked at this term, but I do intend to come back to the early church fathers at some point in the future. Next week (hopefully) I’ll be looking at Erasmus and allowing him to help us see some of the context of the reformation.